Category: Public health

CNN – The best prevention against the coronavirus is still washing your hands

(CNN)When it comes to novel coronavirus protection, face masks are futile. There isn’t a vaccine yet. So the best way to prevent transmission of the novel coronavirus is washing your hands — thoroughly — with soap and water, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
And yes, there’s a right way to wash your hands. It’s something of an art form — a timed, multistep process that can involve some light singing.
Here’s the CDC’s official hand-washing how-to. All you need to follow along is a sink and soap.
Step 1
Wet your hands with clean, running water. Then, turn off the tap and soap up your hands. Soap is more effective at removing germs than water alone.
Step 2
Work the soap into a lather by rubbing your hands together. Lather soap onto the backs of your hands, in between your fingers and under your nails. Lathering causes friction, which strips pesky germs and dirt from the skin. Be sure to get into the nooks and crannies, too — germs lurk there.
Source CNN
Step 3
Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Sing or hum “Happy Birthday” twice through to keep time. There’s no magic number, but washing your hands for at least 20 seconds has been shown to remove more microbes than washing for shorter periods does. Singing “Happy Birthday” is just a fun way to make sure you’re scrubbing long enough.
Step 4
Rinse your hands well under clean, running water. You’ve lifted the germs from your hands. Clean water flushes them off.
Step 5
Dry your hands using a clean towel or air-dry them (or a bit of both). Wet hands easily transfer viruses. Drying them off lessens that risk.
Original publication: link
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Coronavirus – what we know about it and how we can protect ourselves from getting ill?

According to the World Health Organisation Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.
According to the World Health Organisation Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.
According to the World Health Organisation Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic types of viruses, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Snakes – the Chinese krait and the Chinese cobra – might be the original source of the newly discovered coronavirus that has triggered an outbreak of a deadly infectious respiratory illness in China this year.
How does the infection pass from one to another?
The virus is transmitted both by airborne droplets and by contact: for example, through the touch of dirty hands to the eyes.
Know the Symptoms
The first signs of infection are dry cough, difficulty breathing, fever, and weakness. In some cases, the disease goes away without pneumonia but is accompanied by a dry cough and a low temperature. In more severe cases, the infection can evolve into pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. The incubation period of coronavirus lasts from 2 to 12 days.
Prevention
Be aware of washing hands and talking less with other people at close range.
Assure to cover your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing. It is emphasized that mild symptoms do not mean that a person cannot infect others.
Is it really helpful to wear a respiratory protection mask?
It is recommended to wear masks and assure that you are not touching your nose under it, especially when you shacked hands with somebody before. It is important to change your mask every new day or when you feel it is not clean enough.

The situation is aggravated by the fact that Asia is now celebrating the New Year, which means that many Chinese go to visit relatives.

The virus has spread to a number of Asian countries and has spread to France, USA, Canada and more. See the map below:
#coronavirusoutbreak #coronarovirus #nCoV #outbreak #virus #handswashing #handshygiene
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Jersusalem Shawarma facing backlash after suspected norovirus outbreak at Calgary restaurants

A family-owned chain of Calgary shawarma restaurants is facing backlash after Alberta Health Services revealed a suspected norovirus outbreak linked to their restaurants.
According to AHS, nearly 130 people have registered complaints that they fell ill after eating food from Jerusalem Shawarma.
AHS said Thursday it received its first complaint about Jerusalem Shawarma on Dec. 6.
More complaints were later made by 17 different groups who said they ate food from multiple Jerusalem Shawarma locations from Dec. 4 to 12.
“Please don’t judge us,” Jerusalem Shawarma co-owner Izzo AbuFarha said. “It was just an isolated [incident] in one of our locations, it didn’t happen all over the place.”
AbuFarha and his five brothers own the 10-restaurant chain, which opened in 2013.
He said they’ve has complied with AHS health inspectors, who recommended the restaurant wash common surfaces and the washrooms every 30 minutes.
AHS said they are currently investigating each complaint to verify the claims, with many coming from groups that fell ill after eating catered lunches.
All of the chain’s locations were inspected by AHS, but none of the restaurants were ordered to close.
“Anything that was of concern, like the ready-to-eat food products, have all been discarded — those things have been started from scratch again. There’s been full disinfections at each of the locations, so we’ve ensured that public safety is number one,” AHS Calgary Zone safe food program manager Sarah Nunn said.
“If there was any serious concerns, then absolutely those locations would’ve been closed.”
Following the news of the AHS investigation, AbuFarha said the restaurant has seen a steep decline in business, including multiple cancellations of catering orders.
He said the restaurant has also received racist comments. “This is something we’ve been getting on a daily basis, lots of bad comments, lots of messages, lots of threatening, lots of phone calls to our staff, to our employees,” AbuFarha said.
Faizan Butt, the lawyer representing Jerusalem Shawarma, said the investigation has been blown out of proportion.
According to AHS, the virus is common around this time of year and is extremely contagious. Symptoms of norovirus include severe stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhea, and can last anywhere from 24 to 60 hours, AHS said.
The best way to prevent infection is to wash your hands often and wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.
“The biggest thing is it’s out there in the community, and it’s about prevention,” Nunn said. “It’s about making sure that we don’t pass this on to anybody else.”
Nunn said AHS takes every complaint seriously and recommends anybody with concerns to contact AHS or 811 with health questions.​
AbuFarha said his employees are taking AHS’ advice seriously, all in an effort to go on with business as usual.
“We’re seeking the support of our community, we’re seeking the support of Calgarians in making this business get back to normal,” he said.
With files from Global News’ Kaylen Small
Original article: LINK
#Outbreak #Norovirus #Food #AHS #JerusalemShawarma #Canada #Calgary
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Classroom Experiment Shows the Importance of Hand-Washing — Just in Time for Flu Season

A science teacher is imploring students and parents to wash their hands after posting the results of her classroom’s stomach-churning experiment.
Flu season is in full swing. The CDC is reporting that 30 states—especially southern states like Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina—are already seeing flu activity. A preliminary estimates report states that there have already been 1.7 million to 2.5 million flu illnesses nationwide between October and November. Thankfully, there are measures everyone can take to keep the virus at bay. And a science teacher from Idaho is spreading awareness with a jaw-dropping post that has gone viral.
Jaralee Annice Metcalf shared photos of a science project she did with her class, writing alongside a series of photos, “We took fresh bread and touched it. We did one slice untouched. One with unwashed hands. One with hand sanitizer. One with washed hands with warm water and soap. Then, we decided to rub a piece on all our classroom Chromebooks.” The result: “So DISGUSTING!!!”
Photos by : COURTESY OF JARALEE ANNICE METCALF
Metcalf pointed out that yes, the school typically sanitizes the Chromebooks but didn’t for this experiment, the results took three to four weeks due to the bread’s preservatives which extend shelf life, and the bread was placed in tightly-sealed freezer Ziploc bags.
“If the bread had been exposed to air and moisture, the experiment may have gone faster,” Metcalf tells Parents.com. “The breads that were very clearly exposed to different germs grew mold quicker. And ones touches by clean hands plus the soap and water ones were not exposed to the germs that cause the mold growth to quicken.”
In her Facebook post, Metcalf identified herself “as somebody who is sick and tired of being sick and tired of being sick and tired and urged followers to wash their hands” and urged her followers to wash their hands, remind their kids to wash their hands, and to remember that hand sanitizer is not an alternative to washing your hands.
She pointed those interested in doing the experiment themselves to instructions provided on C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital’s website.
Since Metcalf shared the images, her post has earned over 59K shares and over 8K comments.
Ultimately, the science teacher hopes that parents not only better understand the importance of hand-washing but that they take the results into consideration when their child comes down with a bug. “Germs spread rapidly,” Metcalf tells Parents.com. “And it doesn’t matter how often they’re told or how well they’re taught to wash their hands, children won’t always do it properly or enough.” That said, when hand-washing fails, a sick day might be called for, which could preempt illnesses like the flu from spreading even further.
Original publication: link
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A norovirus outbreak shut down an entire Colorado school district right before Thanksgiving

A Colorado school district has closed more than 40 schools after a highly contagious virus outbreak.
It’s the first time the Mesa County Valley School District 51 has had to close all schools due to illness, the district said Wednesday.
“We are taking this highly unusual action because this virus is extremely contagious and spreading quickly across our schools,”
Nursing Coordinator Tanya Marvin said in the statement.
More than a dozen schools in the state’s 14th largest district reported increased absences “due to illness and several incidences of vomiting in public areas of the schools,” according to the Mesa County Public Health Department.
A second, related virus has also been affecting students in recent weeks, the district said.
“The combination of the two has created an unprecedented spread of illness.”
“Onset of symptoms for both types of viruses, including vomiting, is incredibly fast. The second version also causes fever in several cases,” the district statement said.
The health department says it is working to identify the illness, which is “acting a lot like norovirus” and lasts between 12-24 hours.
Norovirus, sometimes called the “stomach bug,” is easily spread through direct contact, consuming contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then putting your hands in your mouth, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The very young, older people, and those with other illnesses are most vulnerable to severe dehydration.
The closure includes all after-school activities, the district said, and schools will remained closed until after Thanksgiving break.
Mesa County Valley School District 51 is the largest school district between Salt Lake City, Utah, and Denver, Colorado, the district website says. It serves more than 22,000 students in 46 schools and programs, employing nearly 3,000 employees.
Tips on how to avoid the illness include thoroughly washing hands and staying away from people who are sick.
“When you have norovirus, the very dramatic symptom people have is often violent vomiting that hits you pretty suddenly,” said Amesh Adalja, MD, a spokesperson for the Infectious Diseases Society of America and a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security in Baltimore, Maryland.
“You have nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and it usually lasts 24 to 48 hours,” he told Healthline. “It can be a pretty grueling 24 to 48 hours.”
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source reports the virus sickens millions of people each year. The very young, older people, and those with other illnesses are most vulnerable to severe dehydration.
Each year, as many as 71,000 people are hospitalized. Between 500 and 800 die.
Picture: Getty
“What’s very striking about norovirus is that it’s very highly infectious. And if you’re exposed to it, there’s a very high likelihood you could be infected by it, even if you’re in good health,” Adalja said.
Easy to get, hard to shakeExperts say that when someone is sick with norovirus, they have large amounts of the virus in them, although it only takes a little to make you sick.
“We know that people who have the virus shed it in very large numbers in their fecal material. We’re talking millions to billions of virus particles in a gram,” said Lee-Ann Jaykus, PhD, a professor in the department of food, bioprocessing, and nutrition sciences at North Carolina State University.
“It probably doesn’t take more than 100 particles to make you sick,” she told Healthline.
Jaykus says scientists know the virus is passed from person to person. That happens when an infected person doesn’t wash their hands after using the bathroom.
The surfaces they touch can become contaminated. If the infected person is a food handler, they can pass the virus onto your food.
They also know that when an infected person vomits, that surface will be contaminated.
But more recently, researchers learned that norovirus may also be transmitted in the air from the repeated vomiting.
“A lot of times this is what we call projectile vomiting, very forceful and severe, literally across the room,” Jaykus explained. “Some of that vomitus gets aerosolized, and it has norovirus in it.”
To study how this happens, Jaykus and a team of researchers actually built a vomiting machine to test how norovirus spreads. The machine simulated human vomiting.
The team used a surrogate virus, which wouldn’t make anybody sick. Then they measured the airborne virus particles.
The scientists publishedTrusted Source the findings of their study in the PLOS One journal in 2015.
“You can detect it. The numbers are not as high as in fecal material, but it’s there,” Jaykus added. “What happens is some of the virus gets aerosolized, people breathe it in. It hits the mucous membranes, goes into the stomach, and the infection process starts.”
And once it starts spreading through a community, the virus is hard to get rid of.
“This particular virus is extraordinarily resistant to the sanitizers and disinfectants that we commonly use at regulated concentrations and contact times,” Jaykus said.
“It’s also incredibly persistent. If I were to put norovirus on a surface in front of me right now, it would probably remain capable of causing infection for a month, maybe more,” she added.
What you can doJaykus notes there’s no norovirus vaccine yet, although some are being developed.
“The real way to protect yourself is to wash your hands a lot. If you see somebody vomiting, go the other way. And if you’re on a cruise ship, tell somebody,” she said.
The CDC Trusted Source has put together some tips to help you keep norovirus from spreading:
1) Practice good handwashing for at least 20 seconds. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer alone won’t do.
2) Wash your fruits and vegetables. Cook seafood thoroughly.If you’re sick, don’t cook or care for others for at least 2 to 3 days after you recover.
3) Clean contaminated surfaces first, then disinfect them. Use a chlorine bleach solution with a concentration of 1,000 to 5,000 ppm (5 to 25 tablespoons of household bleach [5.25 percent] per gallon of water) or other disinfectant registered as effective against norovirus by the Environmental Protection Agency.
4) Wash your laundry thoroughly.
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Soapy was featured at the Grand Challenges Annual Meeting

Israel Innovation Authority participated in the 2019 Grand Challenges Annual Meeting co-hosted by the African Union, Ethiopia’s Ministry of Health, Grand Challenges Canada / Grands Défis Canada, USAid and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The Grand Challenges Annual Meeting is a convening of over 1,000 key leaders from across the global community to share best practices, encourage collaboration and seek solutions for common challenges. It aims to build momentum for global health and development innovation and foster scientific collaboration among international groups and researchers.
Since 2014, Israel Innovation Authority runs a local Grand Challenges program in cooperation with MASHAV, Israel’s Agency for International
Development Cooperation.
The aim of the incentive program is to encourage R&D of innovative technological solutions to societal challenges in global health, water and food security in low income countries. The program, initially founded with the mentorship of Grand Challenges Canada, has been active since 2014 and has supported 27 technological projects to date, many of which have delivered significant impact.
At the meeting in Addis Ababa, Innovation authority presented a poster featuring the winners of the latest call for projects in health (Senecio, #Zzapp, Wheelchairs of Hope), water (Soapy, #Alumor Tipa) and food security (#OKO, Hargol FoodTech, Amaizz, Farmster).
The poster was also published in the Gates Open Research platform: link
Thank you Innovation Authority for such an honor!
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Come meet us at the Thoracic Oncology Symposium in Milan

A fully interactive comprehensive symposium that covers all aspects of the most up to date thoracic surgery, oncology and pneumology and their interdisciplinary relationship.
Providing all the elements to develop an advanced and successful program for the diagnosis, care and treatment of the different stages of lung cancer.
For more information visit: https://thoraciconcology.it/
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CDC – Food workers washed their hands in only 27% of activities in which they should have.

New research of the CDC reveals that food workers washed their hands in only 27% of the activities in which they should have.
Based on the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) recommendations when workers need to wash hands
  • Eating,
  • Drinking,
  • Using tobacco,
  • Coughing,
  • Sneezing,
  • Using tissue,
  • Preparing raw animal products,
  • Handling dirty equipment, and
  • Touching the body (such as scratching your nose).
CDC found that overall, workers engaged in about 9 activities an hour that should have involved handwashing with water and soap. Unfortunately, in most of the cases, they did not:
Other interesting find was that, workers were more likely to wash their hands at the right time when they were not wearing gloves than when they were.
The research was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net). EHS-Net is a federally funded collaboration of federal, state, and local environmental health specialists and epidemiologists.
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Hand hygiene decreases school absenteeism

Photo for representation only.
Hand hygiene helps to reduce school absenteeism rates due to illnesses by almost 40% of studies suggest, said a senior healthcare professional.
While many factors contribute to school absenteeism, student illness is believed to be the main driver of student absenteeism.
The transmission of infections within schools can result in infections making students too sick to attend classes, said Dr Mohammed Rahmathulla Shafeeq, Assistant Executive Director of Infection Prevention and Control at Hamad Medical Corporation.
He urged parents and teachers to place special focus on handwashing.
“Proper and regular handwashing is essential for children as it ensures hygiene and averts infection,” said Dr Shafeeq.
“Keeping hands clean through improved hand hygiene is one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Many diseases and conditions are spread by not washing hands with soap and clean, running water. If soap and water are unavailable, use hand sanitiser,” he said.
Diseases such as flu, common cold, vomiting, diarrhoea, and stomach flu are common diseases that can be positively impacted by more frequent hand hygiene and routine cleaning and disinfection of commonly touched surfaces.
“Proper and regular handwashing at school and outside keeps children free of infection. And schools should have proper facilities that help students easily wash their hands and maintain proper hygiene,” said Dr Shafeeq.
“Sinks should be placed in a place that is quite accessible for all students. And we recommend liquid soaps as soap bars cause infection to be transmitted from an infected child to others while it is used for handwashing,” he added.
Dr Shafeeq also said that tissue papers should be made available and children should be asked to make use of them after washing hands.
“Possibility of infection is high if the hands remain wet,” he said.
Dr Shafeeq also urged the school authorities to ensure that enough break time is available for all.
“Inadequacy of time can create inconvenience for students and this should be addressed. And all students should be given bathroom break if they demand it during class time,” he said.
He asked parents to teach their children personal hygiene and ensure hygiene is properly maintained in order to ensure that their children are free of infection.
“Children should be asked to take regular baths and brushing of teeth. And they should be sent to school with cleaned washed clothes,” he said.
Dr Shafeeq urged school authorities to regularly clean and maintain water cooler dispensers and air conditioning units in order to ensure they don’t transmit anything harmful.
For the original article follow the link
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The dangers of trachoma – Prevented by hygiene

Trachoma is among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which are a group of parasitic and bacterial infectious diseases that affect 1.5 billion people, and 40 percent live in Africa.
NTDs affect the poorest, most vulnerable people who live in hard to reach parts of Africa.
The diseases, experts say, disfigure and disable, keep children out of school and parents out of work, limiting their potential in communities stuck in poverty.
Prevention includes personal cleanliness, especially of the face and hands.
NTDs rank among the four most devastating groups of communicable diseases.
Prosper Dusengeyezu, a public health officer at Rwanda Pharmaceutical Students’ Association (RPSA), says the conditions cause severe pain and long-term disability and lead to death in many people.
He says amongst children, infection leads to malnutrition, cognitive impairment, stunted growth, and the inability to attend school.
He adds that social isolation and physical ailments make working difficult for people with NTDs. Many people are unable to provide for themselves or their families and are left in a cycle of poverty.
Some of the other common NTDs include; Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths, among others.
TRACHOMA TYPES
Trachoma is a contagious bacterial infection that affects the conjunctival covering of the eye, the cornea, and the eyelids.
It is often associated with poverty and lack of proper hygiene.
Dusengeyezu says this condition is caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria and that it is essentially totally preventable and curable if it is diagnosed and treated early.
Meanwhile, trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world.
The types, Dr. Francis Kazungu, a general practitioner in Kigali, says include acute trachoma which is frequently found in children who are dirty, dusty and unhealthy.
He says the condition manifests as painful eyes, swollen eyelids, watery discharge from the eyes and itching of the eyes with ear, nose, and throat infection.
“It usually affects one eye and gradually spreads to the other,”
he says.
There is also recurring trachoma, where he says that if poor hygiene persists, the person gets affected again and again.
Kazungu says there is also chronic trachoma, where it causes inward turning of the eyelid such that the eyelashes rub against the cornea.
“Gradually, the symptoms persist and instead of resolving, lead to chronic trachoma and blindness between 30 to 40 years if left untreated,”
he adds.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?
Yvan Ntwali, a Kigali-based ophthalmologist, says factors that escalate the risk of contracting trachoma include poverty.
He explains that trachoma is primarily a disease of extremely poor populations in developing countries.
Another risk factor, he says, is crowded living conditions, adding that people living in close contact are at greater risk of spreading infection.
Poor sanitation, he says, poor sanitary conditions and lack of hygiene, such as unclean faces or hands, help spread the disease.
Age is also another factor in areas where the disease is active, and it’s most common in children four to six years of age.
Gender, he says, is another risk factor. Women’s rate of contracting the disease is two to six times higher than that of men.
Lack of latrines, he explains, like populations without access to functioning latrines (a type of communal toilet) have a higher rate of the disease.
CAUSES
Ntwali says trachoma is caused by certain subtypes of chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium that can also cause the sexually transmitted infection, chlamydia.
He notes that the condition spreads through contact with discharge from the eyes or nose of an infected person.
Hands, clothing, towels, and insects can all be routes for transmission. In developing countries, eye-seeking flies also are a means of transmission, Ntwali says.
HOW TO TELL
Ntwali further says that the major symptoms or signs of the initial stages of trachoma consist of; Irritation and mild itching of the eyelids or eyes, drainage from the eyes that contain pus or mucus.
As the disease progresses, Ntwali says trachoma symptoms include, blurred vision and a marked sensitivity to light referred to as photophobia.
Another symptom, he says, is a pain in the eye.
He explains that young children are most susceptible to this disease but the infection normally advances gradually, and the most painful signs or symptoms normally will not develop until adulthood.
COMPLICATIONS
Kazungu says trachoma causes irritation of the eyes, starting with simple redness of the eyes and lids, progressing to the inward turning of the lids and irritation and scarring of the cornea, which may then progress to an opaque cornea resulting in blindness.
These complications, he says, are avoidable with adequate diagnosis and treatment.
With the development of the later stages of trachoma, with scarring of the lids and conjunctiva, he says vision is often decreased to the point where the individual is no longer able to work, resulting in the disruption of the family.
Because of profound visual disturbance or blindness, Ntwali says there may be an increased number of related injuries or even accidental death.
PREVENTION
Dusengeyezu notes that maintaining good hygiene and sanitation is essential to prevent this disease in developing countries, which has been eradicated in developed countries.
This, he says, includes avoiding physical contact with a person suffering from trachoma.
Another prevention measure Dusengeyezu says, includes personal cleanliness, especially of the face and hands.
“Washing hands and face frequently with soap and water is important, especially in children who are already infected to prevent re-infection,”
he adds.
Besides, he says, keeping food covered and using clean latrines and toilets to prevent the breeding of flies is important. TREATMENT
According to Dusengeyezu, the treatment is relatively simple.
He says a single oral dose of antibiotics is the preferred treatment, plus making safe water available and teaching simple cleanliness.
“Because of cultural differences and widespread poverty in endemic areas, this regimen is difficult to implement on a universal scale,”
he says. Treatment also involves screening communities for the presence of trachoma in children one to nine years of age.
When over 10 percent are found to have a clinical disease, he says the entire community is treated with antibiotics. In areas with less disease, only targeted groups are treated
“Due to the contagiousness of trachoma, it is necessary to treat all who might be in contact with the infected individuals,”
he adds.
When trachoma has progressed to the inward-turning of the lashes, he says that surgery is necessary to correct this and prevent the lashes from scarring the cornea.
The performance of this surgery can be taught to nurses or other medical personnel.
Ntwali adds that if significant corneal scarring already exists, corneal transplantation surgery may be required, which should be performed by an ophthalmologist.
original text link: newtimes
#news #publications #healthcare #healthsafety #children #education #trachoma #handwash
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Office Germs getting more dangerous

For the full textfollow the link on “back off bacteria” blog
#Office #Superbugs #Bacteria #Antibioticresistance #Handwash #Toilet #workplace #healthsafety #productivity #publichealth
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The Guardian: How to wash your hands properly

The bad bacteria we pick up on our fingertips can lead to infection, but we often miss them when washing. An expert from the Royal College of Nursing advises on how to maintain good hygiene
Working up a lather. Photograph: Flashpop/Getty Images
Two types of bacteria live on our hands: resident bacteria, which are rarely implicated in infection and are good for the skin, and transient bacteria, which we pick up on our fingertips when we touch surfaces. The latter are the ones we want to remove.
You should wash your hands after going to the toilet, or changing a sanitary towel or tampon; after changing a nappy; before preparing food, after handling raw meat; and before eating. It is easy to pick up bacteria and viruses when travelling on public transport, so wash your hands afterwards.
You need soap and, ideally, running water, but a bowl of water will do. Wet hands thoroughly and apply liquid or bar soap – if you apply soap to dry hands, it can act as an irritant and you don’t get coverage all over your hands. Rub your palms together, then interlink your fingers and rub them together. Next, place the fingertips of one hand in the palm of the other and rub, and vice versa. Rubbing the hands together creates friction, which removes the bacteria and creates a lather. Within that lather is the bacteria you have removed, ready to be washed away. Once you have worked up a good lather and rubbed all the surfaces together, rinse your hands and dry thoroughly, not forgetting in between the fingers. If you are out and using a paper towel, don’t lift the lid of the wastebin with your clean fingers. At home, change hand towels twice a week, or more often if someone has an infection such as norovirus.
Rose Gallagher is the professional lead for infection prevention and control at the Royal College of Nursing. She was talking to Emine Saner.
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